Much like Canada, Afghanistan has a constitution regarding the basic human rights of its citizens. The Constitution of Afghanistan is the supreme law of the state of Afghanistan that legally shapes the relationship between the Afghan government and Afghan citizens. The first Afghan constitution was established 1890s and was followed by the 1923 version. The current Afghan constitution was approved and put in place in January 2004. It evolved out of the Afghan Constitution Commission mandated by the Bonn Agreement.
The Basics of Afghanistan’s Present Day Rights
- Islam is the sacred and state religion
- Followers of other religion are “free to exercise their faith and perform their religious rites” within the limits of the law
Civil and Human Rights:
- Citizens are guaranteed the right to life and liberty, to privacy, or peaceful assembly, torture and of expression of speech
- If accused of a crime, citizens hold the right to be informed of the charges, to representation by an advocate, and to presumption of innocence
- They have the right to express thoughts through many forms
“Every Afghan shall have the right to express thoughts through speech, writing, illustrations as well as other means in accordance with provisions of this constitution.” (Article 34)
- Pashto and Dari are the official languages, and in addition any other languages will be considered “the third official language” in areas where they are spoken by a majority
As the constitution states, it aims to “foster and develop all languages of Afghanistan.” (Article 16)
In The Kite Runner, numerous historical events in Afghanistan were not mentioned in plot. However quite a few of the dates ironically matched up. I believe this was an intentional choice of author so he would be able to convey when a significant event was taking place in history by writing a significant event within the novel that help the same date. For example, in 1988, Amir has his first novel published. It is a very joyous occurrence in his life, and it is the same year the Soviet Union withdraw from Afghanistan. More evidence of this is how in 2002 two very positive events occur. In the novel, Amir and Sohrab flies the kite, and the time same year in history, Afghanistan adopts a new constitution with three-branch government.